The term “namespace” is used here to imply the IRI where the elements in a named ontology or schema are defined and resolved. The namespace IRI reserved for xAPI is This reserved namespace IRI initially addresses xAPI vocabularies, but may be further expanded in the future to define a more complete ontological data model representation of other xAPI objects and properties as well.

Both namespaces and prefixes are practices carried over from XML schema design principles. Namespace prefixes provide a shorthand way of abbreviating long namespace IRIs, making the classes and properties that belong to a schema or ontology more readable and compact. For example, Verb defined as a Class in the xAPI Vocabulary Dataset Schema is identified by the IRI, and may also be represented as xapi:Verb, if the prefix xapi has been declared to stand for the namespace (".

The namespace prefixes and their corresponding namespace IRIs currently used in this version of the xAPI Vocabulary Dataset Schema are provided below.

Schema/Ontology Name Prefix Namespace IRI Purpose for xAPI Vocabularies
Dublin Core dcterms for time/date versioning
Friend Of A Friend (FOAF) foaf for identifying the names of people or groups
Web Ontology Language (OWL) owl for ontology structure & modeling
Provenance Ontology (PROV-O) prov for vocabulary and term versioning and other maintenance metadata
Resource Description Framework (RDF) rdf for describing resources and their data types
RDF Schema rdfs for modeling resources with OWL classes & properties
Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) skos for expressing relationships between concepts (e.g., verbs) and concept schemes (vocabularies)
Wordnet wordnet for linking to synsets that can aid in word sense disambiguation and multilingual translations
Experience API (xAPI) xapi to define xapi-specific classes and properties
XML Schema xsd for when using xsd data types such as date strings and language values

Figure 4. Table of select namespaces used for xAPI Vocabulary datasets.

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